Publications

Trauma-Informed Classrooms
October 24, 2017
The impact of students’ life experiences on their behavior has garnered increasing attention as schools strive to develop more supportive academic environments that address the needs of at-risk youth and facilitate continued academic engagement. Few events outside the classroom have as profound an impact on multiple domains of student development as traumatic life experiences. Traumatic events...More
Collecting Data and Sharing Information to Improve School-Justice Partnerships
October 23, 2017
Juvenile courts nationwide handle cases referred by schools for truancy or behavioral incidents. Since 2012, the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ) have trained jurisdictions on strategies and policies to reduce the number of referrals to the juvenile justice system for school-based behaviors. The NCJFCJ has provided technical assistance to communities seeking to...More
Disrupting School-Justice Pathways for Youth with Behavioral Health Needs
October 9, 2017
Throughout the 1990s, the rise of zero-tolerance school discipline policies resulted in the widespread adoption of strict and mandatory responses for a large range of misbehavior in school. An unintended consequence of these policies and practices were youth with behavioral health needs put at an increased risk for exclusionary discipline and school-based arrests. Disabled students and those with...More
The Intersection of Juvenile Courts and Exclusionary School Discipline
October 9, 2017
Prior to the passage of the Gun Free Zone Act of 1994 (GFZA), school administrators and educators were largely responsible for addressing student misbehavior in schools. However, since the implementation of GFZA, an increasing number of school-related issues have instead come before the juvenile courts due to highly punitive school policies and practices. Zero tolerance policies and exclusionary...More
Developing a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for School-Justice Partnerships: Technical Assistance Tools
March 3, 2017
A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a critical document in establishing coordinated efforts in a school-justice partnership. An MOU is a multilateral agreement among multiple parties intended to express a common vision and line of action. MOUs in school-justice partnerships represent a collective commitment among schools, courts, and other relevant agencies, to adhere to specific principles...More
Judicially-led Responses to the School Pathways to the Juvenile Justice System Project: An Overview of the Lessons Learned
November 21, 2016
The zero tolerance policies that were adopted by many local and state education agencies in the 1990s  had the unintended effect of unnecessarily introducing low-risk youth to the juvenile justice system for disruptive behaviors that are very typical of adolescence. Despite overall decreases in juvenile delinquency referrals nationally, including arrests of juveniles for violent offenses, the...More
Criminological Highlights: Children and Youth - Vol. 2, No. 3
January 2, 2015
This sixth issue of Criminological Highlights: Children and Youth is now available for download. This issue covers the following topics:   01. When members of the public say that they want harsh penalties for youths, what do they mean? 02. Does being apprehended and arrested for a crime act as a deterrent? 03. How can the principles of general deterrence be employed in a manner that may reduce...More
School Pathways to the Juvenile Justice System Project: A Practice Guide
September 12, 2014
The NCJFCJ has published this guide as part of a larger project addressing school discipline referrals to the juvenile justice system. The project aims to reduce the number of referrals to the juvenile justice system for school based behaviors through the establishment and collaboration of judicially led court/school partnerships. The practice guide is intended to provide the multi-system...More
School Pathways to the Juvenile Justice System: The Context for a Practice Guide for Courts and Schools
August 30, 2014
The NCJFCJ has published a Technical Assistance Bulletin on the School Pathways to the Juvenile Justice System: A Context for a Practice Guide for Courts and Schools as part of a larger project addressing school discipline referrals to the juvenile justice system. The project aims to reduce the number of referrals to the juvenile justice system for school based behaviors through the establishment...More
OJJDP Bulletin: Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2011
August 27, 2014
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) has released Juveniles in Residential Placement, 2011. The bulletin, written by National Center for Juvenile Justice's (NCJJ) Sarah Hockenberry, Research Associate, with assistance from Melissa Sickmund, Ph.D., Director of NCJJ, presents information from the 2011 Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, conducted by the U.S....More